Editor-in-Chief Hatice Kübra Elçioğlu Vice Editors Levent Kabasakal Esra Tatar Online ISSN 2630-6344 Publisher Marmara University Frequency Bimonthly (Six issues / year) Abbreviation J.Res.Pharm. Former Name Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal
Journal of Research in Pharmacy 2023 , Vol 27 , Issue 1
Rapid detection of synthetic adulterants in Indonesian herbal medicines using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics
Azminah AZMINAH1,Islamudin AHMAD2,Jihan Azmi Nur FIKRI3,Muhammad Irsal JUMADIL3,Nadia Aqilah Fakhriyyah ERZA3,Sarini ABDULLAH4,Adelina SIMAMORA5,Abdul MUN’IM3
1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Surabaya, Surabaya, 60284 East Java, Indonesia
2Pharmaceutical Research and Development Laboratory of FARMAKA TROPIS, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, 75119 East Kalimantan, Indonesia
3Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424 West Java, Indonesia
4Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 West Java, Indonesia
5Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Krida Wacana Christian University, Jakarta 11510, Indonesia
6National Metabolomics Collaborative Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, West Java, Indonesia
DOI : 10.29228/jrp.302 Herbal medicines have been gaining popularity as alternative medicines in recent years, including in Indonesia. Synthetic drug compounds can be illegally included in herbal medicines to achieve a faster effect. Detection of synthetic drugs in adulterated herbal products is important because of the negative side effects associated with short- and long-term use. Sildenafil, phenylbutazone, and sibutramine HCl are common adulterants in Indonesian herbal products intended to promote sexual arousal and performance, relieve muscle pain, and reduce weight. The aim of this study was the rapid and cost-effective detection of sildenafil citrate, phenylbutazone, and sibutramine HCl in Indonesian herbal products and herbal drug preparations by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectrometer (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Herbs (aphrodisiac, muscle pain relieving and slimming herbs) and medicinal plants (Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.) roots, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) leaves and West Indian Elm (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk.) leaves) were intentionally adulterated with synthetic drug compounds in the range of 0-40% (w/w). ATR-FTIR spectra were recorded for all unadulterated and adulterated samples at 4000 - 650 cm-1. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to analyze the spectra of the unadulterated and adulterated samples. All samples were successfully classified with respect to their synthetic compound content. The presence of sildenafil, phenylbutazone and sibutramine can be rapidly detected with simple and non-destructive sample preparation using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics. In conclusion, this method can be used for screening sildenafil citrate, phenylbutazone and sibutramine HCl adulterants in herbal products and herbal powders. Keywords : Adulteration; aphrodisiac herb; pain-relieving herb; principal component analysis; hierarchical cluster analysis
Marmara University